Message from the Guest Editors
The Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Global Control and Eradication Strategy was established in 2015 with the aim of global PPR freedom by 2030. Over the last 5 years, several activities were implemented at all levels. This Special Issue on PPR will consider all activities undertaken including research toward the vision of a PPR-free world by 2030.
Dr. Felix Njeumi
Prof. Dr. Paula Menzies
Written by Stela Zamfirescu, IGA CR for Romania, and Honorary President of National Association of Goats Caprirom
Mr. Neculai Doileț, a prominent member of the National Association of Goats in Romania, and for many years a member of IGA, passed away at the age of 77, succumbing to a disease with which he struggled in recent years.
For 15 years, he was the vice-president of the Caprirom association, and he always supported the actions taken by it for the development of the goat sector in Romania. He was a great lover of goats, had a goat farm, and built a small goat’s milk processing factory, from which he delivered fresh milk, cheese, and yogurt to the population of his town.
Neculai participated in both international and regional IGA conferences, including IGA conferences in Bella-Italy (2007), Queretaro-Mexico (2008), Recife-Brazil (2010), Tenerife-Spain (2012), and in the IGA regional conferences organized by ANCC Caprirom de in Constanta (2004, 2006) and Oradea (2014). He was a cheerful and friendly man, so he made many friends worldwide and among the members of the IGA boards, with whom he kept in touch until the end of his days.
There was practically no major event in Romania or around the world involving goats in which he did not participate, specialized fairs, seminars, conferences, or congresses of goat breeders. At the world competition of goat’s milk cheeses Fromagora-Italy (2007), he obtained 3rd place in the category of fresh cheeses obtained from unpasteurized milk.
With the disappearance of Neculai, I lost a dear friend and a great supporter of goat breeding. May God rest him in peace.
from Maryland Extension Small Ruminant Program
Last spring, it was reported that ivermectin had efficacy (in a laboratory setting) against the coronavirus that causes Covid 19. Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic drug for animals. Ivomec® drench is FDA-approved for use in sheep. Ivermectin also has approved uses for humans.
After the announcement, some people started using ivermectin to self-medicate. In some countries, a “black market” emerged for ivermectin. In the US, ivermectin started disappearing from the shelves of farm stores.
Many health officials oppose the use of ivermectin to treat Covid. Others advocate for its use and have used it to treat Covid patients. The appeal of ivermectin is that it is widely available and cheap. It is also usually well tolerated.
About this Event
Goat kids are an important part of any dairy goat operation. In this webinar series we will discuss managing the nutrition of transition does, caring for kids in the 48 hours after birth, pain management, housing considerations, and pre-weaning management of goat kids. There will be some key findings presented from the Goat Kid Mortality Project that took place in Ontario from 2017-2020.
This webinar series will take place 10:00am to 12:00pm on February 16, 18, 23, & 25, 2021 and will be hosted on Zoom platform and teleconference. You can sign-up for one or all four webinars in the series. Registration is free.
The scheduled webinars include:
February 16, 2021: Successful Transition Doe Management
Dr. Robert Van Saun – Extension Veterinarian - Pennsylvania State University
February 18, 2021: Caring for Kids in the First 48 hours
Dr. Cathy Bauman – Ontario Veterinary College – University of Guelph; Marlene Paibomesai – Dairy Specialist – OMAFRA
February 23, 2021: Pain Management and Housing Considerations
Dr. Cathy Bauman – Ontario Veterinary College – University of Guelph;
Dr. Jocelyn Jansen– OMAFRA; John Van de Vegte – OMAFRA
February 25, 2021: Pre-weaning Goat Kid Management
Brittany Todd – Young Animal Nutritionist – Grober Nutrition
Dr. Gosia Zobel – Behaviour and Animal Welfare– AgResearch NZ
Sign-up to learn the latest knowledge on managing your does through the transition period, your kids from birth to weaning and how many of these management practices can be applied on your farm. This is a continued education opportunity and you will receive a certificate of participation.
OMAFRA-Knowledge Translation and Transfer Grant
University of Guelph, OMAFRA, Ontario Goat, Gay Lea Foods Co-operative, Ontario Dairy Goat Co-operative
Agitu Ideo Gudeta, who was killed on Wednesday, used abandoned land to start a goat farming project employing migrants and refugees.
To learn more about her life visit the links below.
Genetic Characterization of the “Chusca Lojana”, a Creole Goat Reared in Ecuador, and Its Relationship with Other Goat Breeds
Lenin Aguirre-Riofrio, Teddy Maza-Tandazo, Manuel Quezada-Padilla, Oscar Albito-Balcazar, Alex Flores-Gonzalez, Osvaldo Camacho-Enriquez, Amparo Martinez-Martinez, BioGoat Consortium, and Juan Vicente Delgado-Bermejo
An individual from a population presents a series of characteristics that differ from the rest and that increase as the kinship relationships are lower; this leads to the fact that two populations that stop exchanging genetic material through mating eventually come to present characters common to all members of each, but different between the two. This was what happened with the animal populations brought to America more than 500 years ago from the Iberian Peninsula in the colonization period, resulting in Creole populations that inhabit the harshest environments of our immense geography. The Creole goat “Chusca Lojana” has adapted to live in the dry forest region of Southern Ecuador, where environmental conditions are warm-dry, with sparse vegetation and a rather irregular topography. In the present study, the intra-breed genetic diversity of this goat is analyzed as well as its genetic relationships with other breeds. Significant FIS and intra-breed structure show that there is some heterogeneity and structure within the breed. However, inter-breed structure results underline that this breed is differentiated from other Creole breeds, because crossbreeding with other breeds was not detected; therefore, we must take advantage of this valuable genetic resource, and ensure its conservation and selection.
The largest population of goats (62%) in Ecuador is in the dry forest region in the south of the country. A Creole goat, named “Chusca Lojana”, has adapted to the dry forest region where environmental conditions are warm-dry, with sparse vegetation. Knowledge of the genetic information of the Creole goat is important to determine intra-racial diversity, the degree of genetic distance among other breeds of goats, and the possible substructure of the population, which is valuable for the conservation of such a species’ genetic resources. A total of 145 samples of the Creole goat was taken from the four biotypes previously identified. Genetic analyses were performed using 38 microsatellites recommended for studies of goat genetic diversity (FAO-ISAG). The results of within-breed genetic diversity showed a mean number of alleles per locus (MNA) of 8, an effective number of alleles (Ae) of 4.3, an expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.71, an observed heterozygosity (Ho) of 0.63, polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.67, and an FIS value of 0.11. Between-breed genetic diversity among 43 goat populations (native of Spain, American Creole, Europeans, and Africans) showed the following values: FIS = 0.087, FIT = 0.176, and FST = 0.098. Regarding the analysis of the population structure, the results showed that the Creole Chusca Lojana goat population is homogeneous and no genetic separation was observed between the different biotypes (FST = 0.0073). In conclusion, the Chusca Lojana goat has a high genetic diversity, without exhibiting a genetic substructure. Therefore, it should be considered as a distinct population because crossbreeding with other breeds was not detected.
Keywords: Capra hircus, biodiversity, genetic resources, conservation, microsatellites markers
We would like to inform you that the 10th International Sheep Veterinary Congress (ISVC) that was scheduled to be held in 2022 from September 19th to 23rd, in Seville, together with the 5th Congress of the ECSRHM, will be delayed six months, to March 6 to 10, 2023. As it is known, the ISVC is being organized by the Spanish Society for Sheep and Goat Production (SEOC). The organizing committee has been working hard for several years in order to perform a successful conference at the organizational, content (scientific, cultural and recreational aspects) and attendance (delegates and speakers) levels.
The reason that has led us to make this decision has been the postponement of the 31st World Buiatrics Congress (WBC) 2021-MADRID, to September 4-8, 2022. The situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has forced the organizers (the Spanish Society ANEMBE) to postpone the conference to September 2022.
As we said before, we would like to have a successful ISVC congress, and as you know, although the WBC is a congress eminently dedicated to cattle, it also has a section dedicated to small ruminants. The WBC is an event with which we share delegates, speakers and members of the Scientific Committee, so it is likely that by holding both events at such close dates, many potential participants, would be forced to choose between the two congresses, negatively affecting both the number of attendees (delegates) and the quality (speakers). We also share sponsor companies and institutions, so holding both congresses in the same year and in the same country, would negatively affect their financial support to our congress. For these reasons, after taking into account the opinions of the members of the Organizing and Scientific Committees of the ISVC-Seville, and obtaining the ISVA and ECSRHM approvals, we considered postponing it to March 2023 to be the best option. If this postponement could cause inconvenience to any delegate, we sincerely apologize on behalf of all the organizers.
We also want to communicate, that we have decided, together with the ISVA, to organize a virtual meeting from 23rd to 25th November 2021 of which we will inform you soon.
Looking forward to meeting all you in March 2023 in Seville!!
Jesse Barandika & María J. Alcalde
Presidents of the Organizing Committee ISVC 2023
Small ruminants (goats and sheep) are kept for multiple purposes and provide a modest, but increasing, contribution to national production of red meat and milk. Most products are consumed by the household or traded through informal markets.
Small ruminant production systems
Pastoralism with larger herds
The end of any year is a good time for reflection and assessment, but this has been a year like no other. We have all been touched by the COVID-19 pandemic, and many of us have lost family, friends, and colleagues. As more people worked from home and faced recurring travel restrictions, IGA members, and Board endeavored to provide more online content and opportunities. The feedback so far has been enthusiastic, with requests for more content in more languages, and we agree! Check the website or social media for updates. And please share any new content from your institution or country! Thank you.
The International Goat Association typically holds the International Goat Conference every four years, but COVID required that we postpone it. The new dates are October 3-8, 2021, and it will still be in Eger, Hungary, but check the IGA website for updates. Here is the ICG Conference website: www.icg2020.org.
The IGA Board of Directors held two virtual meetings this year, on March 24 and October 2, plus a Strategic Planning meeting on December 7. I give special thanks to all of the Board members who have agreed to extend their terms an additional year due to COVID and who also participated in our online and Zoom discussions with great enthusiasm and insight. The new IGA Strategic Plan will be posted on the website once finalized, and it will guide us through the changing world we will find in 2021 and onwards. I want to commend the Strategic Planning Committee, chaired by Davinia Sánchez, and committee members Jean-Marie Luginbuhl, Dilip Bhandari, and Paula Menzies for guiding this crucial process for IGA to increase activity, visibility, and impact.
The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.