Environmental and socioeconomic sustainability of goats under a marginal-extensive production system
C. Navarrete-Molina, C.A. Meza-Herrera, M.A. Herrera-Machuca, U. Macias-Cruz, and F.G. Veliz-Deras
Globally, while the livestock sector contributes significantly to the environmental impact (EI), it faces some key challenges such as to increase production to cover increased demand, to adapt to highly variable natural and economic scenarios, and to enhance its eco-environmental performance. Such complex scenarios require a comprehensive evaluation of the EI considering the carbon footprint (CF), the blue water footprint (BWF), the socio-economic sustainability (SES) and their interactions. Hence, the economic value (EV) made by the goat production system (GPS) in the Comarca Lagunera (CL), northern arid Mexico was quantified to compare it with its EI and SES (1994e2018). Response variables included the EV of the CF and BWF and the SES of the EV-GPS. The value of each of the variables was adjusted to 2011 euros while indicating the value in United States Dollars (USD) between parentheses. The CL recorded annual averages of 390,427 goats, 64.34 million liters of milk and 3,316.12 tons of meat. When contrasting the EV-GPS [MV 18.17 (MUSD 23.47)] with the EV-CF [MV 3.61 (MUSD 4.67); 84.29 kg CO2-eq kg milk-meat protein -1, MMP -1] þ EV-BWF [MV 2.48 (MUSD 3.20); 462.99 I H2O kg MMP -1)], a positive balance was observed. The accumulated GPS-CL economic spillover effect was MV 454.23 (MUSD 586.83), 5.79 million minimum wages (MW) yearly and close to 400,000 MW during the studied period. The GPS is highly eco-efficient considering both the CF and the transformation of the BWF into animal protein (milk-meat) with an undisputable biological value. Besides, the greater the economic and productive efficiency of the GPS, the better the socio-economic conditions of the producer and his family, with concomitant decreases in both the index and degree of marginalization of families and municipalities where goat production develops.
Keywords: Goats, Ecological footprint, Environmental and economic impacts
Sistema extenso de producción de cabra de doble propósito en el municipio de Capitanejo, Santander, Colombia
El Chicamocha Medio es una ecorregión donde la caprinocultura se considera una actividad económica importante para las familias campesinas, por ello se propuso identificar las prácticas de manejo del ganado caprino para generar información específica que sea útil para las instituciones en diferentes escenarios. Se tomó una muestra no probabilística a 33 unidades productivas caprinas de nueve municipios de esta región. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante una encuesta semiestructurada sobre como: 1. tipificación de predios, 2. acompañamiento técnico, 3. inventario de semovientes, 4. instalaciones para caprinos, 5. fin productivo, 6. manejo del rebaño, 7. Plan sanitario, 8. tipo de sistema productivo y alimentación y 9. Bioseguridad. Se estableció que la caprinocultura se desarrolla en minifundios con un inventario promedio de 59 cabezas, con infraestructura adaptada y baja inclusión tecnológica.
El fin productivo predominante es la carne, su manejo es tradicional en sistema semi confinado y el principal problema sanitario referido es el parasitismo gastrointestinal. Se concluye que el manejo del rebaño es tradicional con baja inclusión tecnológica, los problemas sanitarios son de origen infeccioso y las soluciones ofrecidas a este renglón productivo son muy incipientes.
Un agradecimiento especial a Clara Viviana Rúa Bustamante por esta información.
Extensive Dual Purpose Goat Production System in the Municipality of Capitanejo, Santander, Colombia
The Chicamocha Medio is an ecoregion where the goat culture is considered an important economic activity for the peasant families. Therefore, it was proposed to identify goat management practices to generate specific information that is useful for institutions in different scenarios. A non-probabilistic sample was taken from 33 goat production units from nine municipalities of this region. The diagnosis was made through a semi-structured survey on: 1. plots classification, 2. technical support, 3. livestock inventory, 4. goat facilities, 5. productive aim, 6. herd management, 7. sanitary plan, 8. type of productive system and food and 9. biosafety. It was established that the goat culture is developed in smallholdings with an average inventory of 59 heads, with adapted infrastructure and low technological inclusion. The predominant productive purpose is meat, its management is traditional in a semi-confined system and the main health problem referred to is gastrointestinal parasitism. It is concluded that the management of the flock is traditional with low technological inclusion, the sanitary problems are of infectious origin and the solutions offered to this productive line are very incipient.
Special thanks to Clara Viviana Rúa Bustamante (Country Representative for Colombia) for this information.
Associate Editor for Production Systems and Sustainability
Born in 1956, Jean-Paul Dubeuf obtained in 1977, an "Ingénieur Agronome" Degree in Animal Production and, in 1978, a Masters (Advanced Study Degree - DEA) in Economic Analysis.
Jean-Paul DUBEUF is a researcher ("Ingénieur de Recherches") at the French National Institute in Agricultural Research (INRA) in “Science for Action and Development,” in Corte (Corsica).
For more than twenty years, he has specialized in the development processes of Small Ruminant (SR) with a special focus on the Mediterranean Area. His recent works have included Social and Environmental Issues, and Societal Changes in the Sustainable Development of SR Production Systems, and Pastoralism and Ecological Transitions. He is studying the implementation of public policies for these activities in several projects at International (with IFAD), National (Morocco) and Regional (Corsica) levels. He has published several applied research articles, review articles and position papers on these themes.
Jean-Paul Dubeuf also developed an expertise on the conception and development of an Information System online for the animal production sectors (data basis, documentation, workflow, synthetic analysis) as the Scientific Director of the International Resource Center on Sheep and Goats Dairy sectors (CIRVAL) from 1995 to 2007. He animated and coordinated several Mediterranean scientific sub-networks (FAO/CIHEAM, International Dairy Federation) and projects.
From 1984 to 1994, he was an Expert and Consultant to support decision-making activities and extension in the dairy co-operative sector in Central France for the Technical Bureau in Dairy Promotion (BTPL).
Jean-Paul is an IGA member and was President of IGA from 2008 to 2012.
The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.