Submission Deadline: 31 January 2022
About this Research Topic
The significance and importance of small ruminants and their breeding for humankind are diverse and cannot be overestimated. Since domestication, sheep and goats have been a source of valuable food products (milk, meat) and warm wool/leather clothes and shoes that protect from cold weather. They also served as sacred animals in early religious rituals and celebrations and accompanied nomads and traders in their long migrations and travels. Sheep wool contributed to building empires and advancing industrial revolutions. In the past and at present, small ruminant products provide many people living in extreme poverty with essential nutrients, supplying them with everyday necessities and ensuring a traditional lifestyle (e.g., pastoralism) for many ethnic groups.
Implementation of high-throughput arrays and next generation sequencing approaches has unlocked an era of genomic investigation in small ruminants, addressing various research aims, from deepening knowledge on the origin and genetic connections of worldwide sheep and goat breeds to understanding the mechanisms underlying the formation of economically important traits and tremendous natural resilience of small ruminants.
Drug resistance to multiple drugs and sometimes to all available drugs in parasites of goats is extremely common. In order to deliver effective treatments to their animals, it is recommended that producers learn which dewormers still work on their farms by doing fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT, comparing before and after fecal egg counts) or having a DrenchRite® larval development assay (LDA) done. Several land grant universities now offer low cost ($5/sample) fecal egg counting for this purpose. For more information, go to https://www.wormx.info/lowcostfec . For information about the cost and availability of the DrenchRite test, send an email to email@example.com .
To improve the effectiveness of deworming treatments, it is now recommended that goats be given combination treatments. A combination treatment is when you give drugs from different classes to the same animal at the same time. It is important not to mix the different drugs together as they are not chemically compatible.They should be given separately, but can all be given at the same time, one right after the other. It is always recommended to treat goats selectively given their individual need for treatment based on FAMACHA© score and/or the Five Point Check©. Sometimes performance (ADG, milk production, litter size) is used as a criterion for deworming. This recommendation is even more important when using drugs in combination. If all animals in the herd are treated, resistance to the dewormers will develop rapidly, and if using a combination, there will be nothing left to use when this happens. Go to wormx.info for more information on drug choice and drug resistance.
This chart was originally developed by Ray M. Kaplan, DVM, PhD, DACVM, DEVPC (University of Georgia) with subsequent contributions by Patty Scharko DVM, MPH (Clemson University). It was last updated October 2021 by Michael Pesato DVM DABVP (Mississippi State University).
“Alimentación y nutrición de CAPRINOS en pastoreo en América Latina”
Fecha: mayo 26 y 27 de 2021
Duración por días 3 horas (4 a 7 pm - hora Colombia, México
(5 a 8 pm – hora Chile
6 a 9 pm - hora Brasil, Argentina)
Plataforma: AGROSAVIA – Colombia
Temática Día 1
Alimentación de pequeños rumiantes en pastoreo en América Latina
4:00 – 4:30 Saludo de bienvenida y presentación del Webinar. Clara Rúa DR. Suramérica IGA
4:30 – 5:00 Cuantificar el consumo de animales en pastoreo en selva baja caducifolia: ¿Qué comen y cuánto comen en trópico sub-húmedo en época de lluvias y secas? Dr. Pedro González Pech. México (20 min).
5:00 – 5:30 Interacción pulso de precipitación-reserva sobre la producción animal en el Semiárido brasileño. Brasil. Dr. Albericio Pereira de Andrade (20 min)
5:30 – 6:00 Ordenamiento del uso del pastizal natural con manejo caprino de carga caprina en la región Chaco Árido en Argentina. Dr. Patricio Dayenoff (20 min)
6.00 – 6.30 Dieta de caprinos en terrenos de pastoreo del secano semiárido y árido de Chile. Giorgio Castellaro Galdames. Ing. Agronómo, Mg. Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile
Sesión 1 Preguntas
6:30 – 7.00
Temática Día 2
Metodologías para la investigación del pastoreo de pequeños rumiantes en América Latina
4:00 – 4:30 Saludo de bienvenida y presentación del Webinar. Clara Rúa DR. Suramérica IGA
4:30 – 5:00 Metodología para identificar vegetación secundaria con potencial forrajero para la producción caprina. Mónica Cardozo Herrán .CR Colombia (20 min).
5:00 – 5:30 Experiencias en el uso de metodologías aplicadas a la epidemiología parasitológica en la selva. Dr. Juan Felipe de Jesús Torres Acosta (20 min)
5:30 – 6:00. Experiencias en el uso de la vegetación nativa brasileña en el control de parásitos de pequeños rumiantes. Dr. Livio Martins Costa Júnior (20 min)
6.00 – 6.30. Conclusiones y perspectivas a futuro en la temática. Clara Rúa DR. Suramérica IGA
Sesión 2 Preguntas
6:00 – 6:30
Small ruminants (goats and sheep) are kept for multiple purposes and provide a modest, but increasing, contribution to national production of red meat and milk. Most products are consumed by the household or traded through informal markets.
Small ruminant production systems
Pastoralism with larger herds
Guidelines for quantication
The methodology developed in these draft guidelines aims to introduce a harmonized international approach to the assessment of the environmental performance of small ruminant supply chains in a manner that takes account of the specificity of the various production systems involved. It aims to increase understanding of small ruminant supply chains and help improve their environmental performance. The guidelines are a product of the Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) Partnership, a multi-stakeholder initiative whose goal is to improve the environmental sustainability of the livestock sector through better metrics and data.
The small ruminant1 sector is of worldwide importance. It comprises a wide diversity of systems that provide a variety of products and functions. In 2011, sheep and goats produced more than 5 million tonnes of meat and 24 million tonnes of milk. Production has increased by 1.7 percent and 1.3 percent per year, respectively, during the past 20 years (FAO, 2013). This increase was driven mainly by developing countries in Africa and Asia. However, Oceania (mainly for meat) and Europe still contribute significantly to production. Production systems can vary from intensive systems, in which animals are partially or predominantly housed, to extensive systems that rely on grazing and native forages, and transhumance systems that involve large flock movements. Products are not restricted to meat and milk; sheep are also valued for their wool (more than 2 million tonnes of greasy wool was produced in 2011), and goats for their mohair and cashmere. Small ruminants also play a crucial role in sustaining livelihoods in traditional, small-scale, rural and family-based production systems. Across the small ruminant sector, there is strong interest in measuring and improving environmental performance.
In the development of these draft guidelines, the following objectives were regarded as key:
These guidelines underwent a public review. The purpose of the review was to strengthen the advice provided and ensure it meets the needs of those seeking to improve performance through sound assessment practice. The present document is not intended to remain static. It will be updated and improved as the sector evolves and more stakeholders become involved in LEAP, and as new methodological frameworks and data become available. The development and inclusion of guidance on the evaluation of additional environmental impacts is viewed as a critical next step.
The strength of the guidelines developed within the LEAP Partnership for the various livestock subsectors stems from the fact that they represent a coordinated cross-sectoral and international effort to harmonize measurement approaches. Ideally, harmonization will lead to greater understanding, transparent application and communication of metrics, and, importantly for the sector, real and measurable improvement in performance.
RLN-FES Microlevel study of the village level animal markets with particular reference to small ruminants (India)
Report of the study conducted in Northern Karnataka Markets
Dr. B. R. Athani
Special thanks to Mamta Dhawan (IGA CR - India)
Increase in urbanization and per capita incomes have lead to shift in preferences of consumers towards protein rich foods, mainly the meat and dairy products. Within the meat subsector, the consumers in the terminal markets can be segmented based on their attitude towards the type of meat in terms of its quality, age, sex and species of origin. As a result, the traditional livestock markets are getting reorganized as monopolistic competitive with focus on the above parameters. On the other hand, the data suggests that shepherding is declining in irrigated areas for want of grazing land and several other factors. But in other areas, predominantly the uplands, the trends are encouraging. The vibrant live animal markets are subtly heralding new opportunities in the subsector.
The study was intended to undertake subsector analysis for small ruminants with more focus on their markets and the supply channels operating in the vicinity of production areas. Subsector was mapped to analyze the dynamics including the gaps in order to identify and address the bottlenecks. The results points out that even though the markets appear monopolistic competitive, still, they are complex and lack considerable degree of transparency in pricing, grading the animals and flow of market information. Traders generally use “nigah” method of pricing that does not employ scientific measurements to determine price.
The price spread appears relatively thin, depends again on size of markets and presence of participants from far off metro cities. The channel length is shorter in small satellite markets where shandy traders and butchers from nearby small towns dominate. The price of the meat in such small markets is also lower compared to the one at metro cities by 20%-30%. Ideally the price of live animals should have direct correlation with price of meat in terminal markets, but we observed that it is never a straight jacket transfer. Apart from trade controlled assessments, tendencies for opportunistic behavior by the buyers based on the local market conditions (in terms of inflow of animals, distresses on part of sellers, number of participants from metros, etc.) determine price trends.
Good Morning Colleagues of the International Goat Association (IGA),
On behalf of the USAID-funded program, Farmer to Farmer, administered by Partners of the Americas with headquarters in Washington, DC, it is a pleasure to share the following opportunity for volunteering and collaborating with us.
The Farmer to Farmer program was designed to bring US volunteers to developing countries across Latin America and the Caribbean. These volunteers support producers, cooperatives, agribusinesses, extension units, and agricultural institutions to develop their local capacity, increase productivity, and position themselves as competitors in the market.
As you can imagine, the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically affected our activities and in the past couple months we have innovated and adapted our program to continue to support our communities through remote technical assistance with remote US volunteers.
Previously, our program could only support the participation of volunteers with US citizenship or work permits. However, due to the travel restrictions associated with the pandemic, USAID has authorized a temporary modification to the program format to include the participation of local volunteers. These local volunteers include technical experts who can support their communities by sharing their knowledge as it relates to themes in agriculture and food security.
We are looking for volunteer experts in Small Ruminants to support our programs in Guatemala and Jamaica who can collaborate with remote volunteers in the US and support our F2F programming. The hope is that both the local and remote volunteer will collaborate, complement each other in their expertise, provide robust contributions to the host. In this way, program beneficiaries will benefit from the knowledge of both volunteers.
If you or anyone in your networks would be interested in volunteering with us, please contact our recruitment office in Washington, DC at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Finally, we would like to clarify that these are volunteer assignments and participants will not receive any financial compensation for their time. We offer the opportunity for local volunteers to participate virtually with the host organization in their country should in-person participation be compromised by risks associated with COVID-19. Volunteers who will make in-person visits to the host will be provided with personal protective equipment and financial compensation for basic needs associated with the assignment.
Please let us know should you have any questions and thank you for your interest in our F2F program.
The Farmer to Farmer team at Partners of the Americas
Efficiency and resilience of forage resources and small ruminant production to cope with global challenges in Mediterranean areas
Meknes, Morocco, 23-25 October 2019
The next Joint Meeting of the FAO-CIHEAM Network for Research and Development in Sheep and Goats (Subnetworks on Nutrition and Production Systems) and the FAO-CIHEAM Subnetwork for the Research and Development of Mediterranean Pasture and Forage Resources will take place in Meknes, Morocco, from 23 to 25 October 2019.
Participation is open to researchers, technicians, post-graduate students and other professionals working to improve the small ruminant sector and forage and pasture resources across Mediterranean countries and beyond.
Click here to see the scientific sessions.
USA, Mississippi – Assistant Professor in Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education with an Emphasis in Small Ruminant Production
The Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences is seeking an Assistant Extension Professor for a 12-month tenure track (60% Extension/40% Research) position to coordinate statewide Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) programs as well as develop extension and research programs in small ruminant health, reproduction or management. The Animal and Dairy Sciences Department currently houses approximately 380 undergraduate students, 25 graduate students and 22 faculty, both on campus and at research and extension centers throughout Mississippi. The Department conducts teaching, research and extension activities on the 1200 acre south farm that includes a research sheep herd. The Department began operations on a new 15,000 ft2 Meat Science and Muscle Laboratory in July of 2018 and will move into a new 38,000 ft2 Animal and Dairy Sciences Building in June of 2019. The Department offers Bachelors of Science degrees with concentrations in Pre-Vet/Science, Animal Production, and Business and Industry. Both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees are offered from within the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences in Animal and Dairy Sciences.
XI Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Especialistas en Pequeños Rumiantes y Camélidos Sudamericanos (ALEPRyCS)
1er Congreso de la International Goat Association Latinoamerican
June 4-7, 2019
Auditorios del Centro de Negocios de la Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro
The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.