Among the major issues facing the global population are persistent malnutrition (including both undernutrition and overweight/obesity), climate change, and environmental degradation. At the crossroads of these issues, animal-source food (ASF; meat, poultry, fish, dairy, and eggs) have attracted considerable attention for both their role in diets and their environmental impacts–and their production also plays an important role in livelihoods, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As these issues are intertwined, they must be considered jointly and with sufficient recognition of the nuance involved. This paper aims to add to this debate through a review and discussion of evidence on ASF spanning several dimensions: nutrition, health, environment, livelihoods, and equity.
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