Report submitted by Intercooperation Social Development India
Special thanks to Mamta Dhawan (IGA CR - India)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) mandated Intercooperation Social Development to conduct goat value chain analysis. The objectives of the analysis are to:
India with 135 million goat population ranks second in the world in goat meat production and its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) value is Rs. 386 billion. Economically weak and socially backward communities keep goat as subsistence.
The goat production system in the country is categorized as Extensive Grazing (predominant in Odisha), Tethering (Parts of Bihar and Eastern UP), Semi-Intensive Production and Intensive Production Systems. Women perform major activities in goat keeping while men play key role in marketing.
Primary source of goat nutrition is through extensive grazing/browsing with zero to marginal supplements at homes. In addition, some of the challenges in goat feeding include shortage of crop residue with change in pulse cropping and stringent forest regulations.
High mortality, especially of kids (up to 40%) due to diseases like Peste des Pettis Ruminants (PPR), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and poor management are major challenges in the goat sub-sector. Despite the Government of India (GoI) initiatives, the estimated annual loss on account of PPR was Rs. 1204 billion in small ruminants and Rs.23.19 billion due to FMD (large ruminants and small ruminants put together).
Non-availability of quality breeding stock is another major challenge resulting in low productivity. The National Livestock Mission (NLM) programme of the Government of India promotes small ruminant development initiatives by using the platforms of women’s Self Help Groups (SHG) and also other cooperative structures.
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APPROACH PAPER FOR VISION 2030
Increasing Focus on the Goat Sector
In stark contrast to the goat rearers belonging to the poorest communities, goat meat consumption is largely by the richest segments of the population. Goat is the most preferred meat priced at INR 450/kg as compared with poultry and beef at INR 180/kg. As per NSSO 2013 6.4% of rural Indians eat mutton, 21.7% eat chicken, 26.5% consume fish, while 29.2% eat eggs.In urban India, about 10% consume goat meat, 21% and, 27% population consuming fish and chicken respectively, and a huge 37.6%, of the urban population, eating eggs. With increasing incomes, health consciousness leading to higher consumption of livestock products, future growth rate of meat consumption ranging between 3-7% based on different estimates. Consumer preference for high value processed goat and milk product is increasing in India and globally, with potential premium for high quality products.
The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.