Dairy has intertwined with human society since the beginning of civilization. It evolves from art in ancient society to science in the modern world. Its roles in nutrition and health are underscored by the continuous increase in global consumption. Milk production increased by almost 50% in just the past quarter century alone. Population growth, income rise, nutritional awareness, and science and technology advancement contributed to a continuous trend of increased milk production and consumption globally. With a fourfold increase in milk production per cow since the 1940s, the contemporary dairy industry produces more milk with fewer cows, and consumes less feed and water per liter of milk produced. The dairy sector is diversified, as people from a wider geographical distribution are consuming milk, from cattle to species such as buffalo, goat, sheep, and camel. The dairy industry continues to experience structural changes that impact society, economy, and environment. Organic dairy emerged in the 1990s as consumers increasingly began viewing it as an appropriate way of both farming and rural living. Animal welfare, environmental preservation, product safety, and health benefit are important considerations in consuming and producing organic dairy products. Large dairy operations have encountered many environmental issues related to elevated greenhouse gas emissions. Dairy cattle are second only to beef cattle as the largest livestock contributors in methane emission. Disparity in greenhouse gas emissions per dairy animal among geographical regions can be attributed to production efficiency. Although a number of scientific advancements have implications in the inhibition of methanogenesis, improvements in production efficiency through feeding, nutrition, genetic selection, and management remain promising for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy animals. This article describes the trends in milk production and consumption, the debates over the role of milk in human nutrition, the global outlook of organic dairy, the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy animals, as well as scientific and technological developments in nutrition, genetics, reproduction, and management in the dairy sector.
Upon invitation, Professor Christopher Lu visited the Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine of Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences during 2016. Dr. Lu presented an invited paper entitled “Overview of Global Meat Goat Industry”.
There are approximately one billion goats in the world, mostly for meat purposes. The top ten countries with the largest goat populations are China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia, Iran, and Mali. There are about three million goats in the United States with a continued increasing trend since the 1980’s.
Written by Dr. Christopher Lu
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article.
Dairy has intertwined with human society since the beginning of civilization. It evolves from the arts in ancient societies to science in the modern world. Its roles in nutrition and health are underscored by the continuous increase in global consumption. Milk production increased by almost 50%, just in the past quarter century alone. Population growth, income rise, nutritional awareness, and science and technology advancement have contributed to a continuous trend of increased milk production and consumption globally.
5月11日至23日，前国际山羊学会主席、美国山羊研究所所长、西雅图阿格西大学校長, 現任希洛夏威夷大學終身教授呂大正 (Dr. Christopher D. Lu) 受邀考察、访问了四川农业大学、河北农业大学和安徽农业大学、及部分综合试验站的山羊、绵羊育种场和产业技术示范基地。其间，呂大正教授应邀为三所大学的部分师生作了三场学术报告，与张英杰教授（中国畜牧兽医学会养羊学分会理事长）、张子军教授和徐刚毅研究员进行了交流，并就进一步开展合作事宜进行了商议。徐刚毅研究员全程陪同。呂大正教授並在四川农业大学向研究生介紹美國山羊綿羊品種歷史及趨勢.
Professor Xu Gangyi, IGA Director of the Board and Professor Zhang Yingjie, IGA Regional Director in Asia hosted a visit by Dr. Christopher D. Lu, Professor of University of Hawaii at Hilo who was in China during in May, 2014 to promote goat research and cooperation and International Goat Association. Dr. Lu is a former president of the International Goat Association (IGA) and Argosy University in Seattle.
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The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.