Mohammad Hossein Hadi Tavatori (1), Nader Papi (2) and Farhad Mirzaei (2)
1) Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Animal Science Research Department, Qazvin Agricultural and Natural Recourses Research and Education Center. AREEO. Qazvin, Iran.
2) Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Karaj.
History of goat rearing in the province
Goat farming has a long tradition in Qazvin province. This helpful animal produces valuable products such as meat, milk, skin, and hair fed by forage and roughages. Goat breeding in Qazvin province is specialized to highlands where there are challenging conditions to rearing other farm animals.
Geographic distribution areas
Areas of Qazvin Province have the largest goat population, including Eastern Alamut, Western Alamut, Lower Tarom (Tarom-e-Sofla), and rural of Qazvin. Also, in this province, about 5% of some sheep flocks are goats.
Based on the current data, the goat population is over 158 thousand heads.
The types of rearing systems
The traditional goat keepers in Qazvin province are overwhelmingly rural and dependent upon mountainous pastures during warm seasons. In the spring, herds of goats feed on the village meadows, and they use fields upstream from mid-June to the end of the summer. In the cold seasons, they stay at the fold in their villages, and fodder is brought to them.
Rahman Rostamkhani (1), Seyyed Saeid Mousavi (2), Hossein Ghorbani (1), Seyyed Vahid Mortazavi (1), Mohammad Taghi Moslemioun (2), Mohammad Hossein Nemati (2), Hassan Mohammadi Nedjad (2), Nader Papi (3) and Farhad Mirzaei (3)
(1) Animal Production Improvement Administration of Zanjan province. Agricultural Jihad Organization. Zanjan, Iran.
(2) Animal Science Research Department. Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Recourses Research and Education Center. AREEO. Zanjan, Iran.
(3) Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Animal Science Institute of Iran, Karaj.
History of goat rearing in Zanjan province
Archeological studies show the history of goat domestication dates to 7000 BC. Historical references also refer to Persia (Iran) as the land of origination of goat domestication. Since the earliest times, Iranians have reared goats for meat, milk, fiber, and skin supply. Currently, goat rearing has a notable role in Iranian nomadic and rural household’s life economy. The recent year’s goat keeping importance has been revealed much more because of climate changes, feed source limitation, and lack of relative advantage of pure breed farm animal production in Iran. Goat keeping has an essential role in meat and milk production in Zanjan province. Historically Name of Afshari goat is originated from the Afshar tribes who first reared this ecotype of goat in the region.
Geographic distribution area
Afshari goat population has been distributed in the different parts of the Zanjan province in about 20000 Km2.surface area, including highland altitudes and plains areas with other climatic conditions.
Based on the current official data, the Afshari goat population is estimated at about 130,000 heads in the province.
Goat keeping procedures are generally rural or semi-nomadic system. Goats are often reared together with sheep and in the grazing livestock act as a frontier animal or leadership of the flocks. Pure herds of goats are not usually seen among the local livestock.
Among the farm animal rearing, goat keeping is a part of daily life of the rural and tribes because of their great interest in this occupation. They usually keep goats not only to improve their incomes but also for the natural compatibility and attractive appearance of their herds.
The cultural, social, and economic relationship among nomadic and rural communities
Afshari goats with 130,000 heads produce some 550 tons of meat and 2,000 tons of milk in the province annually. Milk, fiber, and meat of Afshari goat are used by the nomadic and rural, and also urban people. Goat keeping has an important role in rural and nomadic life economy because of the food source supply and earning incomes. Hence, Afshari goats have great economic importance for rural or nomadic households.
Few references indicate the phenotypic characteristics of Afshari goat among the goat sciences literature. In general, the dominant color of the coating fiber is pure black, but other colors are seen in the flocks. Both male and female goats are hornless. Bucks have a strong and muscular body, and because of the good capability of grazing in poor pastures or feeding low-quality forages and they can return good income for their owners. Does have good performance of milk production, daily milk yield ranges from 1.5-2.3 Kgs. Mature bucks weigh more than 60 kgs., which is a good potential for meat production.
Goat yields are generally consumed inside the province, and the exportation of the products is not performed.
Items used for products
Of the Afshari goat products, hair products can be mentioned. Hair fiber growth is about 25 cm/year, and each goat can produce some 400 grams of hair per year, which is used for preparing of handicrafts and traditional clothes in most villages. The skin is used in the leather industry. Milk is used for feeding kids, and the rest of it is used to prepare cheese, yogurt, whey, and some other local milk derivatives. Mature bucks weigh more than 60 kgs., which supply the local and urban residents’ meat needs.
Measures for identifying and genetic improvement
There is a decent rate of multiparity in Afshari goats, which can result in high performance and more economic animals, by performing of interbreeding selections or other livestock improvement programs. In 2007, an on-farm project plan entitled “An investigation on crossbreeding of the Sannen bucks with native black goat (Afshari does)” was carried by the Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources of Zanjan province. In these projects, the performance of first and second generation of crossbreds (F1 and F2) had a relatively good result, but in most cases, their adaptability was weak in the rural rearing condition.
Suggestions for performance improvement
As a national genetic resource, Afshari goats have valuable production performance and traits which has not been studied scientifically. For identification of the production performance of this ecotype, it is necessary to do comprehensive researches and studies.
AbdulMahdi Kabirifard (1), Sayed AbuTaleb Sadeghi (1), Mohammad Sadegh Yazdanshenas (2),
Nader Papi (3), Farhad Mirzaei (3)
1. Animal Science Department, Bushehr Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Bushehr, Iran
2. Jihad-e-keshavarzi Organization of Bushehr Province
3. Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Karaj.
History of goat breeding in the province
Adani goat almost since the European colonial countries participated in the Persian Gulf in Bushehr province was entered. This goat in coastal areas where the climate is hot and humid, easily adapted, and able to endure high and with optimal milk production is approximately indigenous. This goat over many generations under the influence of natural and artificial selection have been reared. In terms of local, the ecotype named Adani, also called Khargi and Gaysi.
Geographic distribution areas
This goat exists only in the Bushehr province, mostly in coastal areas from Genaveh to Assaluyeh.
The population of this goat in herds is almost 35 thousand head crossed with native black goat and Pakistani in most townships. At present, in the breeding station for Adani goats, there are 340 Adani goats and 90 Adani crossed with Alpine and Sannen goats.
Written by Abdulhamid Karimi*, Nader Papi**, Farhad Mirzaei**
* Animal Science Department, Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Shiraz, Iran
** Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
History of Abadeh Cashmere goat breeding in the province
The history of breeding Abadeh Cashmere goats is not well known. Livestock (sheep, goats) rearing is an essential job for people in Abadeh and Bavanat cities. They produce thousands of tons of meat, a wide variety of dairy products, as well as cashmere and goat hair every year.
Geographic distribution areas
Abadeh Cashmere goat are distributed in Fars province in Abadeh and some parts Bavanat.
Written by H.R. Bahmani, N. Papi, F. Mirzaei
Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran
History of goat breeding in the province
The archaeological excavations show that Aryans were the first to domesticate goats for the first time. They were domesticated more than 9000 BC in Asia and the Middle East, especially in the lands now called Kurdistan. Given the many similarities in terms of coverage and characteristics of the produced fiber between Markhoz goats and Angora goats, they have been known as Iranian Angora goats and their fiber as mohair in some references. Some researchers assume the center of Anatolia and many have speculated Asia Minor as the origin place of Angora goats, especially where Kurds live in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey. The variation in the goats in Kurdish areas supports the latter speculation. Markhoz goat population may have been part of the core Angora goats isolated from its population in Iraq and Turkey for long years.
Geographic distribution areas
Markhoz goats have dispersed for years away in the provinces of Kurdistan, West Azerbaijan, and Kermanshah. At present, there are only few of them in a small part of Kurdistan and West Azerbaijan provinces. More than 90 percent of the population of Markhoz goats are scattered in its natural habitat, in the county of Armarda in the vicinity of the city of Baneh
Country Representative for Iran
Farhad graduated with a B.Sc. in Animal Science and M.Sc. in Animal Husbandry Economics from Iran and was awarded a Ph.D. in Livestock Production Management from the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India. His Ph.D. research focused on goat and kid rearing and breeding.
Scientists at Iran's Royan Research Institute has succeeded in producing the country's third cloned goat belonging to Murcia-Granada breed of goat. Dr. Mahdi Hajian, Head of Embryology Department at Isfahan Campus of Royan Research Institute, made the announcement asserting "following successful cloning of Saanen and Alpine goats, we sought to clone a third one from Murcia-Granada breed."
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Written by Dr. Sandra Solaiman
World Goat Day took place in Karaj, Iran on September 18-19, 2017. This was a memorable event as Iran is the site where domestication of goat started more than 8-10,000 years ago. More than 1,000 producers, villagers, goat keepers, members of tribal communities, agriculture-related industries, students, extension agents, scientists, researchers, national and international dignitaries, as well as governmental agencies including the honorable Minister and 3 Vice Ministers of agriculture (livestock affairs, Planning and economics, research, education and extension) attended the event and participated to show their support.
A Celebration of the First Domestication of Goats and the Contribution of Goats Today
We are very happy to announce that World Goat Day 2017 will take place in Iran!
The success of “National Goat Day” in January 2016 showed the importance of goat production in Iran. Throughout the region and most of the world, goats continue to enhance the quality of human life. As we saw during the 12th International Conference on Goats in Turkey, there is global interest to learn from other researchers, producers, processors and other actors throughout the value chain.
Now, the Organizing Committee will convene, and a specific date will be set. We will keep you informed as we gather more information.
We know World Goat Day will be a great success, and we look forward to joining in the celebration.
Distinguished scientists, researchers, goat breeders and experts worldwide,
We respectfully request your support for our upcoming meeting of major goat breeders, enthusiasts, and goat experts of the Animal Science Research Institute of Iran (www.asri.ir) as host of the this event, National Animal Breeding and animal products promotion Center (www.abc.org.ir) and National Organization for Nomads Affairs (www.ashayer.ir) on January 27, 2016.
The goal is to propose a World Goat Day, with the help of the International Goat Association, so your kind support will be highly appreciated. Policy papers, benchmarking analysis by scientists and senior experts, and interesting debate topics by nomadic and rural goat keepers will be presented. International scientists and breeders are welcome.
The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.