Environmental and socioeconomic sustainability of goats under a marginal-extensive production system
C. Navarrete-Molina, C.A. Meza-Herrera, M.A. Herrera-Machuca, U. Macias-Cruz, and F.G. Veliz-Deras
Globally, while the livestock sector contributes significantly to the environmental impact (EI), it faces some key challenges such as to increase production to cover increased demand, to adapt to highly variable natural and economic scenarios, and to enhance its eco-environmental performance. Such complex scenarios require a comprehensive evaluation of the EI considering the carbon footprint (CF), the blue water footprint (BWF), the socio-economic sustainability (SES) and their interactions. Hence, the economic value (EV) made by the goat production system (GPS) in the Comarca Lagunera (CL), northern arid Mexico was quantified to compare it with its EI and SES (1994e2018). Response variables included the EV of the CF and BWF and the SES of the EV-GPS. The value of each of the variables was adjusted to 2011 euros while indicating the value in United States Dollars (USD) between parentheses. The CL recorded annual averages of 390,427 goats, 64.34 million liters of milk and 3,316.12 tons of meat. When contrasting the EV-GPS [MV 18.17 (MUSD 23.47)] with the EV-CF [MV 3.61 (MUSD 4.67); 84.29 kg CO2-eq kg milk-meat protein -1, MMP -1] þ EV-BWF [MV 2.48 (MUSD 3.20); 462.99 I H2O kg MMP -1)], a positive balance was observed. The accumulated GPS-CL economic spillover effect was MV 454.23 (MUSD 586.83), 5.79 million minimum wages (MW) yearly and close to 400,000 MW during the studied period. The GPS is highly eco-efficient considering both the CF and the transformation of the BWF into animal protein (milk-meat) with an undisputable biological value. Besides, the greater the economic and productive efficiency of the GPS, the better the socio-economic conditions of the producer and his family, with concomitant decreases in both the index and degree of marginalization of families and municipalities where goat production develops.
Keywords: Goats, Ecological footprint, Environmental and economic impacts
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Associate Editor for Production Systems and Sustainability
Born in 1956, Jean-Paul Dubeuf obtained in 1977, an "Ingénieur Agronome" Degree in Animal Production and, in 1978, a Masters (Advanced Study Degree - DEA) in Economic Analysis.
Jean-Paul DUBEUF is a researcher ("Ingénieur de Recherches") at the French National Institute in Agricultural Research (INRA) in “Science for Action and Development,” in Corte (Corsica).
For more than twenty years, he has specialized in the development processes of Small Ruminant (SR) with a special focus on the Mediterranean Area. His recent works have included Social and Environmental Issues, and Societal Changes in the Sustainable Development of SR Production Systems, and Pastoralism and Ecological Transitions. He is studying the implementation of public policies for these activities in several projects at International (with IFAD), National (Morocco) and Regional (Corsica) levels. He has published several applied research articles, review articles and position papers on these themes.
Jean-Paul Dubeuf also developed an expertise on the conception and development of an Information System online for the animal production sectors (data basis, documentation, workflow, synthetic analysis) as the Scientific Director of the International Resource Center on Sheep and Goats Dairy sectors (CIRVAL) from 1995 to 2007. He animated and coordinated several Mediterranean scientific sub-networks (FAO/CIHEAM, International Dairy Federation) and projects.
From 1984 to 1994, he was an Expert and Consultant to support decision-making activities and extension in the dairy co-operative sector in Central France for the Technical Bureau in Dairy Promotion (BTPL).
Jean-Paul is an IGA member and was President of IGA from 2008 to 2012.
The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.