Written by Zuzana Sztankoova, IGA Country Representative, Czech Republic
In the Czech Republic, goat breeding is focused mainly on milk production and its subsequent processing on dairy products (cheese, yogurt, and kefir) by the breeders. Although, goat breeding has a rich history and tradition in the Czech Republic, at present, goat breeding is little enlarged in the Czech Republic (Table 1).
Total number of goat has increasing trend by each year and we postulate, that total number of goat will increase in the future as well as number of female registered into breeding and into dairy performance.
Based on information from Czech statistic office, Table 2 report total number of goat, total number of female and female first time matted in period 2007 to 2014. Number of total female has increasing trends in flock, and number of female first - matted has stable equilibrium.
In the past, goat breeding had small scale character - most of the farms keep less than 10 goats - with prevailing single-purpose performance orientation to milk production. At present time, goat breeding starts to become mass production character. Today, there are 26 dairy farms over 100 animals and 6 dairy farms over 200 animals in the Czech Republic (Table 3).
The White short-haired (WSH) and Brown short-haired (BSH) goat is Czech national breed kept mainly for cheese and milk production. They are characterized by high milk yield, good fertility, and early maturity. The breeds were developed as separate populations starting from a common base of local rustic-type goats. In 1997, both breeds were enrolled as “potentially endangered” in the National Program for Conservation of Genetic Resources.
The WSH breed was developed between 1900 and 1930, mainly in Moravian regions, through the crossbreeding of local goats with Saanen bucks imported from Switzerland to improve milk production. The WSH is classified as being part of the Saanen group. About 30% of the purebred population is kept in individual households (1-3 dams), with performance recorded and selection applied according to the breeding objective of the breeders’ association. These dams are mothers of breeding sires sold to large commercial dairy herds (50–500 dams), which then produce their own replacements. Commercial herds are mainly stall-fed, with year-round housing and little or no grazing.
The BSH is classified in the Chamois group. From the period of about 1900 to 1960, coloured local goats of North Bohemia were improved through crossbreeding with German (Harz) and Swiss (brown Alpine) bucks. Commercial herds are smaller in BSH (15–70 dams) and use mainly seasonal grazing. At present, only natural mating is used, either by individual mating or by allotting bucks to a group of dams. Inbreeding is avoided for at least 3 generations.
Further goat breeds were imported to the Czech Republic in followed years: Anglo-Nubian (1988), Angora (1991) Cashmere (1992) and these have been included into milk performance recording since 2001, 2202 and 2001, respectively (www.schok.cz). Table 4 displaying number of buck registered into breeding by breed and year.
It is expected, that total number of animals (goat and sire) will increase further due to the growing consumer interest in goat milk product (cheese, yogurt, kefir).
Ministry of Agriculture: Situační a výhledová zpráva ovce a kozy (Situation and perspective report - Sheep and goat (2012, 2013)
Fantová M. a kol. (2000): In: Chov koz. (Goat Breeding) Edice Brázda.
Goat and sheep Breeders´ Association (www.schok.cz).
Horák F. et al. (2008): 80 let kontroly úžitkovosti koz v Českej republice 1928-2008. (The 80th years of performance recording in goat in the Czech Republic 1928-2008). Edited by Sheep and Goat Breeders´ Association p 1-45.
Mátlová V. Annual report (2002-2013).
The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.