Nader Papi (3), Farhad Mirzaei (3)
1. Animal Science Department, Bushehr Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Bushehr, Iran
2. Jihad-e-keshavarzi Organization of Bushehr Province
3. Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Karaj.
Adani goat almost since the European colonial countries participated in the Persian Gulf in Bushehr province was entered. This goat in coastal areas where the climate is hot and humid, easily adapted, and able to endure high and with optimal milk production is approximately indigenous. This goat over many generations under the influence of natural and artificial selection have been reared. In terms of local, the ecotype named Adani, also called Khargi and Gaysi.
Geographic distribution areas
This goat exists only in the Bushehr province, mostly in coastal areas from Genaveh to Assaluyeh.
The population of this goat in herds is almost 35 thousand head crossed with native black goat and Pakistani in most townships. At present, in the breeding station for Adani goats, there are 340 Adani goats and 90 Adani crossed with Alpine and Sannen goats.
The population in herds is variable between 2 and 50 heads. The main reason for the interest of livestock breeders is low-cost nutrition, twinning, and high milk production. Rearing of this goat in the province is accomplished in two ways:
- Home rearing: In this method, the number of goats is always between 2 to 5 heads. The goats are maintained in traditional stalls at home and are fed there over the years. The feeding ingredients include dry bread, a small amount of barely (during the lactating season), grade 3 date palm, and human food residuals.
- Rural rearing: This method is used in the fields along the rural coastal strip. The number of goats is always 15 to 50 heads. Goats graze daily in pastures around the village, and feeding is the same as home rearing.
In addition to a decline in rural emigration, industrial rearing creates jobs. Raising of just three goats can provide the majority of meat needed for a family of four in a year.
Cultural, social and economic relation with nomadic and rural communities
The Adani goat is a dual-purpose (milk-meat) animal. The meat, in terms of quality, is tender and has low fat and has many fans in Bushehr province. The phenotype is very beautiful (deer-like) which results in high value, especially in Persian Gulf countries. Additionally, their resilience to the harsh environment along the coastal strip encourages increased rearing by goat keepers.
The body size is small and delicate, with small hooves, a triangle head, and graceful, narrow snout. Eighty percent of males and 68 percent of females have horns that are V shape. Their bodies are short. Adani goats are frequently a gray-brown (deer) color, and reddish fawn (intermediate frequency), white uniform, black uniform, white and black, and white and brown are less frequent. Quarters are large and bulky, usually in the color of the body. Nipples are fine and have medium length and diameter. Adani goats often have a characteristic strip of blond and brown or black and white near the spine. There are often light-brown to black stripes on their cheeks from under the eyes to the muzzle.
Adani goats are one of the most important livestock genetic and biological resources of the country with high production potential. Their high value in Persian Gulf countries could be part of a future program for exporting. Proliferation and exportation of this goat as a non-oil commodity would be beneficial.
Use of products
Due to the low population of Adani goats, only residents use their milk, yogurt, curd, and oil. The meat uses as a valuable protein source for local people.
Measures for identifying and genetic improvement
The Jihad-e-Keshavarzi organization of Bushehr province began studies on this goat in 1364 (1985) and 1375 (1996), establishing a breeding station for genetic improvement. The station currently has 340 Adani goats included 190 does, 30 male kids, 25 bucks and 95 female kids. Crossbreeding projects with Adani goats and Alpine or Sannen are being conducted at this station to increase milk and meat production, and intensive breeding for reducing stock pressure on pastures is in progress. There are now 90 head of Adani crossed with Alpine and Sannen. The main objectives of the Adani goat breeding station include:
- Proliferation, production, and breeding of Adani goats
- Genetic improvement and breeding of Adani goats
- Production and distribution of crossed bucks
- Sperm and embryo production and the development of artificial insemination
Suggestions for ways to improve performance
- Establish economic values and breeding objectives.
- Help farmers improve the nutrition and reproduction efficiency of the goats.
- Shift breeding practices towards industrial systems and away from traditional.
Special thanks to Farhad Mirzaei (IGA-CR Iran) for sharing this report with us.