Mohammad Hossein Hadi Tavatori (1), Nader Papi (2) and Farhad Mirzaei (2)
1) Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Animal Science Research Department, Qazvin Agricultural and Natural Recourses Research and Education Center. AREEO. Qazvin, Iran.
2) Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Animal Science Research Institute of Iran, Karaj.
History of goat rearing in the province
Goat farming has a long tradition in Qazvin province. This helpful animal produces valuable products such as meat, milk, skin, and hair fed by forage and roughages. Goat breeding in Qazvin province is specialized to highlands where there are challenging conditions to rearing other farm animals.
Geographic distribution areas
Areas of Qazvin Province have the largest goat population, including Eastern Alamut, Western Alamut, Lower Tarom (Tarom-e-Sofla), and rural of Qazvin. Also, in this province, about 5% of some sheep flocks are goats.
Based on the current data, the goat population is over 158 thousand heads.
The types of rearing systems
The traditional goat keepers in Qazvin province are overwhelmingly rural and dependent upon mountainous pastures during warm seasons. In the spring, herds of goats feed on the village meadows, and they use fields upstream from mid-June to the end of the summer. In the cold seasons, they stay at the fold in their villages, and fodder is brought to them.
About 1,000 households in Qazvin province are involved in goat rearing. Considering the dairy industry, spinning, and clothing, the number of native goat farming employees will go even further in Qazvin province.
The cultural, social, and economic relations with nomadic and rural communities
Rural communities in the province of Qazvin use milk, fiber, and meat from these animals. Native goats are often reared together with sheep, and in grazing livestock work as responsible leadership. Goat meat is of particular value in rural communities because it contains less fat than sheep meat.
Qazvin native goats have a medium body size, and their color is from white to light or dark brown, black, or a mixture. Their head and ears are of medium size, and they often have horns.
Nearly all the products of Qazvin native goats are consumed within Qazvin province, especially in native goat breeding areas, including Alamut and Tarom-e-Sofla.
Items use of products
Native herders produce goat cheese in the spring and butter in autumn. Goat milk is converted to yogurt and Lour. Goat fibers are used to produce Shola (a type of local clothes), rope, socks, hats, and mats. Goatskin is utilized to make a container for producing cheese and Posttakht (flat skin) as a mat.
Measures for identifying and genetic improvement
No breeding program for Qazvin native goats has been implemented. Recently, researchers at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Qazvin province are developing a plan to identify and preserve these genetic resources.
Suggestions for ways to improve performance
Special thanks to Farhad Mirzaei (IGA-CR Iran) for submitting this interesting article.
The International Goat Association promotes goat research and development for the benefit of humankind, to alleviate poverty, to promote prosperity and to improve the quality of life.